Multipla kemična občutljivost (MCS – Multiple Chemical Sensitivity)

 

MCS je kronična bolezen fizičnega izvora, ki se lahko pojavi v kateremkoli starostnem obdobju. Običajno je posledica večje obremenjenosti s strupenimi snovmi. Bolj kot kratkotrajna hujša obremenitev je problematična dlje trajajoča manjša obremenitev kot npr. v bolnih stavbah ali zaradi notranje obremenitve pri dolgotrajnem slabem zdravju, zaradi okužbe ali gliv.

 

Prizadeti imajo okvarjene procese razstrupljanja, zato močno odreagirajo na najmanjše količine strupenih snovi.  Težave imajo zaradi dišav, kozmetičnih proizvodov, zdravil, detergentov, čistil, pesticidov, dima, izpušnih plinov, topil … Lahko gre za alergičnim podobne reakcije, v hujših primerih lahko pride celo do anafilaktičnega šoka. Simptomi so odvisni od intenzivnosti obremenitve, reakcija se lahko pojavi takoj ali pa šele nekaj ur po izpostavitvi. Lahko gre za glavobole, slabost, vrtoglavico, dezorientiranost, zmedenost, težave z dihanjem, izčrpanost, bolečine v mišicah …

 

Problem ni le v reakciji na trenutno izpostavljenost in v trajnih poškodbah, ki jih izpostavljenost kemikalijam povzroča, ampak tudi v vedno večji senzitizaciji. Pogosta izpostavljenost občutljivost človeka poveča. Spremeni se tudi občutek za voh, pri ljudeh z MCS je od 100 do 1000-krat boljši kot pri drugih. Ker so nekateri iritanti v zraku brez vonja, je velikokrat kljub temu zelo težko ugotoviti, na kaj prizadeti reagirajo.

 

MCS človeka zelo ovira v življenju, vpliva na vse socialne interakcije in v hudi obliki vodi v povsem izolirano življenje. Zelo občutljivi posamezniki lahko postanejo intolerantni na vrsto hrane, lahko se pojavi tudi občutljivost na elektromagnetna polja.

 

Koliko je prizadetih, ni znano. Obstajajo le ocene, povečini navajajo med 10 in 20% populacije. Mnogi težave zamenjujejo z alergijo. Le manjši delež ima uradno diagnozo, ker je še premalo poznana.

 

 

Simptomi

 

Simptomi niso pri vseh enaki tako kot tudi stopnja prizadetosti ni pri vseh enaka. Odvisni so od trajanja, tipa in intenzivnosti kemične izpostavitve. Večina se pojavi v nekaj minutah. Najpogostejši so:

 

glavobol

vrtoglavica

težave z dihanjem

motnje razpoloženja

hiperaktivnost

potenje

palpitacije

bolečine v mišicah, sklepih

spremembe na koži

zmanjšana mentalna sposobnost

zmedenost

dezorientiranost

motnje koordinacije

izčrpanost

izguba zavesti

 

Okrevanje lahko traja nekaj ur, dni ali celo tednov. V tem času imajo prizadeti lahko gripi podobne simptome, otekle žleze, razjede, izpuščaje, so zelo utrujeni in imajo težave s koncentracijo. Visoka obremenitev v enem dnevu še zmanjša toleranco v obdobju okrevanja.

 

Tisti, ki so neprekinjeno izpostavljeni nižjim koncentracijam toksinov, običajno ne opazijo povečane občutljivosti in specifičnih reakcij. Ko se njihovo zdravje slabša, lahko trpijo za vrsto na videz nepovezanih simptomov:

 

draženje sluznic v očeh, nosu in žrelu

težave z dihanjem

bolečine v prsih

kašelj

utrujenost, šibkost

težave s prebavili, sluznice so lahko poškodovane, celo krvaveče

bolečine v mišicah in sklepih

izpuščaji na koži, srbečica

glavoboli

razdražljivost

depresija

težave s koncentracijo, spominom

slabše ravnotežje

 

Mnogi so občutljivi na kemikalije, a še lahko normalno funkcionirajo. Občasno imajo blažje simptome, motijo jih izpušni plini, dim, čistila, dišave, vendar še vedno lahko učinkovito delajo.

 

V težjih primerih je učinkovito delo že onemogočeno celo s pomočjo mask in filtrov. Javni prostori kot so trgovine, pošte, knjižnice, cerkve ... so nedostopni. V varnem domačem prostoru tako prizadeti še lahko skrbijo zase. Imajo težave z domačimi oz. obiskovalci, ki vnašajo ostanke toksinov na oblačilih, laseh, raznih predmetih. Ne prenašajo več mnogih zdravil. Težko si zagotovijo varen prostor, ker imajo težave z vsemi novimi stvarmi. Oblečeni so lahko le v oblačila iz naravnih vlaken, ki jih perejo z blagimi sredstvi.

 

Pri hudi prizadetosti je možno le življenje s pomočjo v kontroliranem okolju. Reakcije se razširijo na vse kemikalije, hrano, cvetni prah, plesni. Psihični in fizični simptomi so tako izraziti, da onemogočajo skrb zase. Težko najdejo dovolj varno okolje za življenje.

 

Obstaja nekaj zapisov osebnih izkušenj spopadanja z MCS, ki dajejo vpogled v životarjenje zelo prizadetih. Med njimi je Vera Strahan:
https://www.facebook.com/groups/140020552680913/permalink/530200263662938/
Članek iz avstralskega Daily Telegrapha: Woman who is ‘allergic’ to the 21st century has no physical contact with the outside world
http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/woman-who-is-allergic-to-the-21st-century-has-no-physical-contact-with-the-outside-world/story-fni0cx2y-1227092832555?nk=d70c1dcd5ac9a95bcda6681666fdea38
Ko se pridruži še občutljivost na elektromagnetna polja: The man allergic to the modern world: Electromagnetic hypersensitivity means Peter, 42, can't use ANY electric gadgets - and can't go outside his house in case he walks near a wifi network
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2796108/electromagnetic-hypersensitivity-means-peter-lloyd-42-t-use-electric-gadgets-t-outside-house-case-walks-near-wifi-network.html
Primer hitro napredovale bolezni: The last few months of the life of Angelika S. who was chemically sensitive
http://www.csn-deutschland.de/blog/en/the-last-few-months-of-the-life-of-angelika-s-who-was-chemically-sensitive/
Vzrok za MCS v hudi kandidiazi: My Candida Hell: Chronic Ethanol and Acetaldehyde Poisoning
http://www.ei-resource.org/articles/candida-and-gut-dysbiosis-articles/my-candida-hell-chronic-ethanol-and-acetaldehyde-poisoning/
 
Tudi s sliko se da veliko povedati. Thilde Jensen je s fotografijo izrazila nekaj utrinkov iz vsakdanjega življenja ljudi z MCS:
http://www.slate.com/blogs/behold/2013/03/01/thilde_jensen_canaries_documents_the_isolating_and_frightening_lives_of.html

 

Tistim, ki raje poslušajo, kot berejo, priporočam intervju z vodjo belgijske MCS skupine:

http://www.mixcloud.com/cmr/the-irate-womens-show-with-sarah-goodley-18082013/

 

Dodatne težave prizadetim povzroča pogosto nepoznavanje problematike in nestrpne reakcije okolice. Velikokrat njihove probleme poskušajo minimirati ali jih pripisujejo psihičnim vzrokom. Saito in sodelavci so dokazali, da MCS pacienti nimajo somatskih ali psiholoških simptomov v kemično varnem okolju, simptome je možno sprožiti samo z izpostavitvijo kemikalijam:

Saito, M. et al.: Symptom Profile of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Actual Life, Psychosomatic Medicine 67:318–325 (2005)

http://journals.lww.com/psychosomaticmedicine/Abstract/2005/03000/Symptom_Profile_of_Multiple_Chemical_Sensitivity.23.aspx


Mnogi lahko normalno delajo, če imajo okoli sebe razumevajoče sodelavce in sorodnike. Na žalost je malo takih, ki so pripravljeni upoštevati prošnje po izogibanju odišavljenim proizvodom. Večina ljudi zelo težko sprejme, da njihova dišava nekomu povzroča bolečine in mu onemogoči normalno funkcioniranje, še posebej, ker jih velikokrat sami niti ne zaznavajo. Celo bolj čuteči posamezniki, ki so pripravljeni pomagati, težko dojamejo širino problema. Skeptični ostajajo ob razlagah, da se lahko dišavo čuti na 100 m. Da ne gre samo za to, da je dišava neprijeten dražljaj, ampak za sistemsko reakcijo na strup. Ki škodi tudi njim, čeprav vpliva ne čutijo tako zelo neposredno.

 

Ljudje z MCS pišejo o zelo žalostnih izkušnjah. Nekdo je npr. namenoma pobrizgal sorodnico z dišavo, zaradi katere je trpela že ob posrednem stiku. Sodelavci so vztrajali pri uporabi dišav kljub temu, da je kolegica na delovnem mestu vsakodnevno izgubljala zavest. Ljudje se prevečkrat obnašajo zelo arogantno ne da bi pomislili, da se MCS lahko zgodi tudi njim. Seveda dodatni stres zaradi podobnih situacij stanje še poslabša. V skrajni fazi je življenje prizadetih tako težko, da se jih veliko odloči za evtanazijo.

 

Razni miti, s katerimi se soočajo prizadeti, so odlično opisani na strani: http://the-labyrinth.com/2015/05/14/myths-and-facts-about-chemical-sensitivity/

 

 

Kaj vse povzroča težave

 

Vse, kar vsebuje sintetične dišave:

toaletne vode, parfumske vode, parfumi

kolonjske vode, vodice za po britju

deodoranti

šamponi

laki za lase

kreme

mila

kozmetika

osvežilci zraka

svečke

plenice

toaletni robčki

WC papir

vrečke za smeti

olja

industrijske kemikalije in kemikalije, ki se uporabljajo v gospodinjstvu

detergenti

čistila

Če je na izdelku oznaka bio, eko ali kaj podobnega, to ne pomeni, da gre za povsem naraven izdelek. Večina sestavin je še vedno sintetičnega izvora, predpisom zadostijo že izdelki, ki imajo le 10% naravnih sestavin.

Zaradi poslovne skrivnosti je dovoljeno prikriti določene sestavine. V bazi EWG je nekaj podatkov o prikritih strupenih snoveh, ki so jih našli z analizo v neodvisnem laboratoriju. Primer iz EWG Skin Deep baze z rezultati analiz kozmetičnih izdelkov:

http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/product/285653/L%27Eau_par_Kenzo_pour_Homme_Eau_de_Toilette_Spray/

V nekaterih izdelkih, ki imajo oznako, da so brez vonja, so dišave vseeno prisotne. Z dodanimi kemikalijami so le prikrili vonj.

 

Druge škodljive snovi:

cigaretni dim

dim, ki nastaja pri izgorevanju trdih in tekočih goriv

smog

izpušni plini

razna organska topila

laki

formaldehid (emisije pohištva, oblačil)

insekticidi

pesticidi

zdravila (antibiotiki, antimikotiki, paracetamol, antidepresivi, beta blokatorji, statini, diuretiki, hipnotiki …)

 

Poseben problem predstavlja kirurško zdravljenje in anestezija, Melissa Kaplan je zbrala nekaj pomembnih podatkov:

Surgery, Anesthesia and CFS/FM/MCS http://www.anapsid.org/cnd/drugs/anesthesia.html

Tudi pri zobozdravstvenih postopkih potrebujejo pacienti z MCS posebno obravnavo:

http://stason.org/TULARC/health/dental-amalgam/13-Is-There-Information-For-The-Chemically-Sensitive-Patient.html#.VP3TWI7ur6g

 

 

Diagnostični kriteriji in testi

 

MCS ima različne vzroke in posledice, zato je diagnosticiranje težavno. Leta 1999 je 34 medicinskih strokovnjakov iz ZDA in Kanade sestavilo dogovorjene kriterije za definicijo sindroma:

·         simptomi so ponovljivi s ponovitvijo (kemične) izpostavljenosti

·         stanje je kronično

·         težave povzročijo nizke koncentracije - nižje kot so že bile oz. so splošno tolerirane

·         simptomi se izboljšajo ali odpravijo, ko so povzročitelji odstranjeni

·         gre za odziv na več kemično nesorodnih snovi

·         simptomi vključujejo več organskih sistemov

Objavljeno v:

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: A 1999 Consensus, Archives of Environmental Health vol. 54, Nr. 3, 1999

http://www.mcsrr.org/1999Defn.pdf

 

Ponekod imajo zdravnike specializirane za okoljsko medicino, ki so še najbolje usposobljeni za diagnosticiranje in pomoč v primerih MCS. Pri pacientih z motnjami  v razstrupljanju je treba preveriti okoljsko in medicinsko zgodovino, pomagati si je treba s fizičnimi znaki in laboratorijskimi preiskavami. Preveriti je treba ledvično in jetrno funkcijo ter izključiti morebitne druge bolezni.

 

Več analiz je navedenih v knjigi:
Nicolle, Lorraine; Beirn, Ann Woodriff:  Biochemical Imbalances in Disease: A Practitioner's Handbook; Singing Dragon, 2010; v e-obliki na voljo tudi v bazi EBSCO, dostop omogočajo naše splošne knjižnice


Testiranje detoksifikacijske kapacitete (str. 72)

Nutrienti

Funkcijski testi

Genetski testi: polimorfizmi v genetskem zapisu za

cistein v plazmi

B vitamini

aktivnost citokroma P450

sulfat v plazmi

metilmalonska kislina v urinu

metilacija

glutation v plazmi

piroglutamska kislina v urinu

acetilacija

glutation v eritrocitih

amino kisline v 24-urnem urinu

konjugacija glutationa

metionin v plazmi

urinski test obremenitve s kofeinom

aktivnost superoksid dismutaze

taurin v plazmi

urinski test obremenitve s salicilatom

minerali v plazmi in eritrocitih

urinski test obremenitve s paracetamolom

antioksidanti v plazmi

 

Testiranje toksične obremenitve (str. 73)

organske kisline v urinu: D-glukarska kislina, merkapturna kislina, orotat, benzoat

amino kisline v 24-urnem urinu: metabolizem amoniaka

toksične kovine v blatu, urinu (osnovni in obremenitveni test), laseh, znoju

ostanki DNK v krvi, ki so bili vezani na ksenobiotike v celicah

biopsija maščobe

kovine, pesticidi, topila, aktivnost holinesteraze v krvi

 

Obremenitveni testi kažejo na probleme v različnih fazah razstrupljanja, kofein v stopnji I, paracetamol kaže na aktivnost glutationa, konjugacijo glukuronida in sulfata, salicilat pa na konjugacijo glicina in glukuronida. Nizko razmerje med stopnjo I in II oz. počasna  stopnja I oksidacije s sistemi citokroma P450 povzroča večjo akumulacijo ksenobiotikov v tkivu, ker so toksični ali farmakološki učinki podaljšani. Višje razmerje med stopnjo I in II oz. počasne reakcije  stopnje II pomenijo večje kroženje toksičnih metabolitov, ki povzročajo oksidativno škodo in povečujejo tveganje za raka. V naslednjih tabelah je nekaj primerov zdravil in drugih vplivov, ki poslabšajo stopnjo I razstrupljanja.

Več o fazah razstrupljanja in snoveh, ki vplivajo nanje:

http://www.lifeextension.com/Protocols/Metabolic-Health/Metabolic-Detoxification/Page-01

http://www.balancedconcepts.net/liver_phases_detox_paths.pdf

http://www.ei-resource.org/easyblog/entry/foods-and-supplements-to-balance-phase-1-and-phase-2-liver-detoxification/

 

Inhibitorji encimov citokroma P450 (str. 74)

Zdravila

Dieta

Kemikalije iz okolja

azolni antimikotiki

grenivkin sok

dušikov dioksid

metronidazol

pomanjkanje železa

toksične kovine

makrolidni antibiotiki (eritromicin)

kinolonski antibiotki (ciprofloksacin)

antidepresivi s selektivno inhibicijo ponovnega privzema serotonina

 

Substrati encimov citokroma P450 (str. 74)

Zdravila/kemikalije

Dieta

Endogeni

oralna kontracepcija

kofein

estrogen

paracetamol

etanol

testosteron

 

 

varfarin

poliaromatski ogljikovodiki (pečeno meso, cigaretni dim, izpušni plini)

zolmitriptan

nesteroidni antirevmatiki

beta blokatorji

poliaromatski ogljikovodiki

 

Genetski testi

Citokrom P450

Metilacija

Acetilacija

Konjugacija glutationa

Oksidativna zaščita

CYP 1A1

CYP 1A2

CYP 1B1

CYP 2A6

CYP 2CP

CYP 2C19

CYP 2D6

CYP 2E1

CYP 34A

PON 1

katehol-O-metil transferaza COMT

N-acetil-transferaza NAT1

glutation-S-transferaza GST M1, GST P1

super oksid dismutaza SOD1, SOD2

 

P450 Drug Interaction Table: Abbreviated "Clinically Relevant" Table

http://medicine.iupui.edu/clinpharm/ddis/clinical-table/

 

 

Zdravljenje

 

V prvi vrsti prizadetim priporočajo čim večje zmanjšanje toksične obremenitve. Kar je v sodobnem svetu zelo težko doseči. Zelo pomembno je imeti varen prostor, ki je na voljo vsaj za spanje (http://www.chelationmedicalcenter.com/oasis_chemical_sensitivity.html).

Dr. Grace Ziem: Environmental Control Plan for Chemically Injured Persons and Preventing Chemical Injury

http://www.chemicalinjury.net/EC/2%20Environmental%20Control%20Plan.doc

Prizadeti si pomagajo tudi z različnimi maskami in filtri za zrak.  

 

S prehranskimi dodatki se da vplivati na procese razstrupljanja in popraviti določene pomanjkljivosti. Najbolj znan je Pallov protokol. Prof. biokemije in medicinskih znanosti Martin Pall na svoji strani piše o zločestem ciklu dušikovega oksida in peroksinitrita, s katerim pojasnjuje tudi slabšanje stanja in večanje občutljivosti: http://www.thetenthparadigm.org/mcs09.htm. Terapijo je treba prilagajati posameznikovim potrebam, seznam dodatkov, ki jih prof. Pall priporoča, je na strani: http://www.thetenthparadigm.org/therapy.htm.

 

Z okoljsko problematiko se ukvarja tudi dr. Grace Ziem, ki razlaga še o drugih možnostih za razstrupljanje in zmanjšanje obremenitve:

http://www.mcsrr.org/resources/articles/S3.html.

 

Omeniti velja tudi angleško zdravnico, ki je uspešna pri zdravljenju SKU in se je izobraževala na področju okoljske medicine, dr. Sarah Myhill na svoji strani piše tudi o MCS: http://www.doctormyhill.co.uk/

 

 

Varen dom

 

Prihaja do nove oblike brezdomstva. Ljudje imajo lastna stanovanja ali hiše, a v njih ne morejo živeti. Nekateri se zatečejo v avto (primerno star seveda) in se selijo za boljšim zrakom. Nekateri živijo v improviziranih bivališčih (šotorih, kolibah), postavljenih v manj onesnaženem okolju. Pojavljajo se organizacije, ki pomagajo iskati primerna bivališča za občutljive, kot je npr. ameriška Re/shelter http://www.reshelter.org/. Gradijo pa se tudi posebna bivališča za kemično občutljive. V Skandinaviji imajo npr. ločene vasi, v Švici so zgradili  poseben blok (http://medicalobserverph.com/swiss-building-provides-refuge-for-the-hypersensitive/). Tudi v ZDA obstajajo podobni projekti: Ecology house http://www.tikvah.com/cc/eh/

 

Verein MCS-Haus für schadstofffreies Wohnen in My chemical free house blog objavljata nekaj podatkov o primernejših materialih in načinih gradnje:

http://mcs-haus.com/bau_vergleichstabelle_1.html

http://mychemicalfreehouse.blogspot.ca/2013/01/zero-voc-flooring-options.html

 

Planung und Ausführung eines MCS-verträglichen Wohnhauses

Dipl.-Ing. Volkmar Hintze, öko-logo Schadstoffanalytik + Baubiologie o gradnji svoje hiše

http://baubiologie-passau.de/index.php/referenzen-projekte/142-planung-und-ausfu-hrung-eines-mcs-vertra-glichen-wohnhauses


The EI Wellspring: Environmentally healthy housing

http://www.eiwellspring.org/saferhousing.html

 

Priznanje MCS

 

MCS so kot uradno diagnozo priznale le nekatere države: Nemčija (2000), Avstrija (2001), Japonska (2009), Švica (2010), Danska (2012), Finska, Kanada (2007), Avstralija, ZDA, Španija (2014). Mednarodna klasifikacija bolezni (International Classification of Diseases), ki jo izdaja World Health Organisation (WHO), v verziji ICD-10 nima posebej navedene MCS, zato večinoma uporabljajo kar T78.4 - Allergy, unspecified (neopredeljene alergije):

http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2015/en

 

Nekateri pomembnejši dokumenti:

 

Written declaration, under Rule 136 of Parliament’s Rules of Procedure, on multiple chemical sensitivity

The Commission and the Council are called upon to:

a. invite Member States to present a joint proposal in the World Health Organisation with a view to including MCS in the International Classification of Diseases, on the occasion of the revision process of the ICD scheduled for 2017;

b. promote research, awareness-raising and exchange of information on MCS at EU level.

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-%2F%2FEP%2F%2FNONSGML%2BWDECL%2BP8-DCL-2016-0018%2B0%2BDOC%2BPDF%2BV0%2F%2FEN

 

Avstralija

MULTIPLE CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY : A NOVEL DISEASE MECHANISM, Peter Evans, July 2011, Public Submission To The National Casemix And Classification Centre For Inclusion Of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Under A Novel Classification Of Diseases, Title Chapter: Environmental Diseases In The International Classification Of Diseases Version 10 Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM)

http://sacfs.asn.au/download/NCCC%20MCS%20ICD10AM%20Submission.pdf

A scientific review of MCS: Identifying key research needs

http://sacfs.asn.au/download/MCS_Final_Report_Nov_2010_PDF.pdf

Social Development Committee (2005) Inquiry into Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. Parliament of South Australia.

http://sacfs.asn.au/download/Inquiry%20into%20Multiple%20Chemical%20Sensitivity%20(22nd%20Report%20of%20the%20Social%20Development%20Committee).pdf

 
Avstrija

Pismo Bundesministerium für Gesundheit:

http://www.csn-deutschland.de/icd-10_austria.pdf

 

Danska

Measures Taken by European Countries for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Danski parlament, 2010

http://sacfs.asn.au/download/Measures%20Taken%20by%20European%20Countries%20for%20Multiple%20Chemical%20Sensitivity.pdf

Silberschmidt M (2005): Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, MCS. Environmental Protection Agency, Danish Ministry of the Environment.

http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publications/2005/87-7614-548-4/pdf/87-7614-549-2.pdf

 

Japonska

Uporabljajo ICD10 T65.9 Toxic effect of other and unspecified substances/Toxic effect of unspecified substance:

http://www.dis.h.u-tokyo.ac.jp/scripts/search/ICD10_searchw.asp?searchstring=T65.9

 

Kanada

Canadian Human Rights Commission Policy on Environmental Sensitivities, 2007, reviewed 2014

http://www.chrc-ccdp.ca/sites/default/files/policy_sensitivity_0.pdf

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety

http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms/scent_free.html

 

Luksemburg

Pismo Ministère de la Santé:

http://www.csn-deutschland.de/ministere_de_la_sante.pdf

 

Nemčija

Pismo DIMDI s klasifikacijami:

http://www.csn-deutschland.de/DIMDI_MCS_2008_de-en.pdf

Navodilo zdravnikom:

http://www.csn-deutschland.de/aerzteinfo.pdf

Klasifikacija bolezni:

http://icdscout.de/

DGMCS - MCS-Fallkriterien - Diagnose - ICD 10 2011 GM alpha - Feststellung einer Behinderung i.S. des SGB IX ab 1.3.2010

http://www.dgmcs.de/index.php?main=fallkriterien/fallkriterien&activ=fallkriterien

 

Španija

Documento de Consenso, Sensibilidad Química, 2011:

http://www.mspsi.gob.es/organizacion/sns/planCalidadSNS/pdf/equidad/SQM_documento_de_consenso_30nov2011.pdf

Predlog zakona:

http://www.congreso.es/portal/page/portal/Congreso/Congreso/Iniciativas?next_page=/wc/servidorCGI&CMD=VERLST&BASE=IW10&PIECE=IWC0&FMT=INITXD1S.fmt&FORM1=INITXLUS.fmt&DOCS=7-7&QUERY=%28I%29.ACIN1.+%26+%28SENSIBILIDAD+QU%C3%ADMICA+M%C3%BALTIPLE%29.ALL.

Poročilo v angleščini:

http://www.sensibilidadquimicamultiple.org/2014/09/spain-recognises-mcs-bubble-people-2014.html

RESCUE PLAN FOR PEOPLE WITH CENTRAL SENSITIVITY SYNDROMES: THE CITY OF TARRAGONA (CATALONIA, SPAIN) IS THE FIRST MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT THAT IMPLEMENTS IT!

http://recognitioninclusionandequity.org/historic-breakthrough-in-tarragona-spain/

 

ZDA

US Department of Housing and Urban Development  - MCS Disorder and Environmental Illness as Handicaps (1992)

http://fairhousing.com/include/media/pdf/mcsd.pdf

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Policy and Resources (US Government policy memorandum, November 2004)

http://www.naturalworldhealing.com/mcs-usgovt-policy.htm

Job Accommodation Network - US Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy

http://askjan.org/media/downloads/MCSEIA&CSeries.pdf

American Academy of Environmental Medicine

http://www.aaemonline.org/chemicalsensitivitypost.html

 

 

Sprejete prepovedi uporabe dišav (fragrance-free policy, scent-free policy)

 

Doseči priznanje, da dišave vsebujejo zdravju škodljive snovi, je težje, kot je bilo v primeru cigaretnega dima. Veliko denarja je v igri, veliko ljudi se boji izgube dobičkonosnega posla. Pa vendar se stvari počasi spreminjajo. Ponekod so že uvedene dobre prakse za ohranjanje zdravja zaposlenih, strank, otrok …

 

Avstralija

Guideline Policy Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Guidelines for South Australian Hospitals

http://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/a7da1b004754557a8a71fa2e504170d4/MCS-HospGuidelinesLicensed.pdf?MOD=AJPERES

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) - Guidelines for South Australian hospitals:

http://sacfs.asn.au/download/MCSHospitalGuidelines-peh-sahealth-1005.pdf

Canberra Hospital and Health Services Standard Operating Procedure, Multiple Chemical Sensitivities (MCS) - Care of patients:

http://www.health.act.gov.au/c/health?a=dlpubpoldoc&document=2787

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, A guide for Victorian hospitals:

http://docs.health.vic.gov.au/docs/doc/EC34C33FC84C53B0CA257A97007C8CC4/$FILE/MCS_Vic_%20Guide%20Hsp_FINAL-v03%20.pdf

Disability Access Checklist Guide for Government Owned & Leased premises:

http://www.sacfs.asn.au/download/SA%20Gov%20Access%20Assement%20%20guide%20version%20SBF%20final%20DTEI%202007_30_11.pdf

Anne Steinemann: Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products

"Fragrance-free indoor environments received widespread support. Of the general population, 42.8% would be supportive of a fragrance- free policy in the workplace (compared with 22.2% that would not), 43.2% would prefer that health care facilities and health care professionals be fragrance-free (compared with 25.2% that would not). Also, 57.7% would prefer flying on an airplane without scented air pumped through the passenger cabin (compared with 16.3% with scented air), and 55.6% would prefer staying in a hotel without fragranced air (com- pared with 22.7% with fragranced air)."

http://the-labyrinth.com/2016/12/14/full-text-of-the-latest-australian-fragrance-study-by-professor-anne-steinemann-for-translation-purposes/

 

Kanada

Vancouver International Airport recently joined the effort by establishing a safe-zone for passengers

http://apex.aero/2016/01/22/passenger-allergies-to-frangance

The University of Windsor - Leddy Library:

http://leddy.uwindsor.ca/scent-free-guidelines

PSAC Awareness Kit on Scent-Free Environments (Public Service Alliance of Canada (PSAC) is one of Canada's largest national labour unions)

http://psacbc.com/sites/bc/files/1018_scent_free_e.pdf

Environmental Sensitivities-Multiple Chemical Sensitivities Status Report: Advances in Knowledge, and Current Service Gaps

Environmental Health Clinic, Women’s College Hospital, Toronto

Lynn Marshall et. al., 2010

https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/CRPD/GC/EnvironmentalHealthClinicWomensCollegeArt.9EN.pdf

 

Nemčija

Obvestilo bolnišnice o posebnem prostoru: ,,Umweltzimmer'' für MCS - und Umweltpatienten/Multiallergiker

http://csn-deutschland.de/Umweltzimmer_im_Krankenhaus.pdf

Hamburg hospital offers rooms for patients with MCS and environmental illness:

http://www.csn-deutschland.de/blog/en/hamburg-hospital-offers-rooms-for-patients-with-mcs-and-environmental-illness/

 

Švedska

Duftstoffe verboten in Krankenhäusern und Arztpraxen in Schweden

http://www.csn-deutschland.de/blog/2008/10/06/duftstoffe-verboten-in-krankenhaeusern-und-arztpraxen-in-schweden/

 

ZDA

Center for Disease Control

http://www.drsteinemann.com/Resources/CDC%20Indoor%20Environmental%20Quality%20Policy.pdf

"It is important that personnel be aware that the use of some personal care products may have detrimental effects on the health of chemically sensitive co-workers.

Personal care products (colognes, perfumes, essential oils and scented skin and hair products) should not be brought into, used, or otherwise applied at or near actual workstations, in restrooms, or anywhere in CDC facilities." 

Americans with Disabilities Act

http://www.adahospitality.org/accessible-meetings-events-conferences-guide/additional-clauses-specific-disabilities

»Likewise, if even a small portion of your attendees have Multiple Chemical Sensitivities (MCS) or environmental illness, consider clauses mandating the hotel avoid renovations prior to and during your event, use unscented cleaners, and avoid the use of pesticides. The hotel should be asked to comply with the fragrance-free meeting policy for the meeting space, common areas, restrooms, paths of travel, and guest rooms. »

Springfield (MA) City Library:

http://www.masslibsystem.org/policies/fragrance.html

Creston Valley (BC) Public Library:

http://crestonlibrary.com/about-us/library-policies/

Bastyr University (WA):

http://bastyr.libguides.com/c.php?g=77692&p=502048
Champlain College Library Circulation Department (New Hampshire):

http://2717.wikidot.com/scent-free-work-place

Maryland Nurses Association priporočila:

http://www.massnurses.org/health-and-safety/articles/chemical-exposures/p/openItem/1347

36th District Court Responds to Fragrance Policy (Michigan):

http://www.36thdistrictcourt.org/about-us/announcements/2017/05/15/36th-district-court-responds-to-fragrance-policy

 

Mednarodni

Environmental Illness Network Minnesota sestavlja skupen seznam, 75 primerov:

http://mn.environmentalillnessnetwork.org/page/scent-free-policies

 

 

Sodni postopki

 

McBride v. the City of Detroit

http://www.onpointnews.com/docs/mcbride_settlement.pdf
https://casetext.com/case/mcbride-v-city-of-detroit-2

»In McBride v. City of Detroit, senior city planner Susan McBride was awarded $100,000. In addition, the City of Detroit (the employer) agreed to revise its ADA handbook and training, and to post notices about the fragrance-free policy

https://www.laborlawcenter.com/education-center/fragrance-sensitivity-a-disability-under-ada/

»After the lawsuit with Susan McBride, the City of Detroit added the following section to its ADA Handbook:

“Our goal is to be sensitive to employees with perfume and chemical sensitivities. Employees who are sensitive to perfumes and chemicals may suffer potentially serious health consequences. In order to accommodate employees who are medically sensitive to the chemicals in scented products, the City of Detroit requests that you refrain from wearing scented products, including but not limited to colognes, after-shave lotions, perfumes, deodorants, body/face lotions, hair sprays or similar products. The city of Detroit also asks you to refrain the use of scented candles, perfume samples from magazines, spray or solid air fresheners, room deodorizers, plug-in wall air fresheners, cleaning compounds or similar products. Our employees with medical chemical sensitivities thank you for your cooperation." »

https://www.laborlawcenter.com/education-center/news/new-ada-guidelines-for-fragrance-sensitivity/

 

»State worker’s bosses ignored his allergies. Now he’s $3 million richer

A Nevada County jury sided with John Barrie in a one-month trial that ended last week, upholding his claims that he experienced retaliation, that his employer failed to accommodate his disability and that he was subjected to a hostile work environment. He continues to work for Caltrans in a position that allows him to work from home.

His complaint stemmed from a series of events between 2010 and 2012 when supervisors repeatedly ignored directives to keep perfumes and chemicals like Windex and Comet away from Barrie, according to the lawsuit he filed in September 2013. As he filed internal complaints to Caltrans managers, his direct supervisors tried to punish him by moving him to different parts of his building for unclear reasons and attempting to make his workplace unappealing to him, the lawsuit says.«

http://www.sacbee.com/news/politics-government/the-state-worker/article150902647.html

 

Zipkin vs. U.S.

tax deduction - construction costs due to MCS, 1995, US District Court

https://www.casemine.com/judgement/us/59147db1add7b04934443da1


Dr. Ziem's "Environmental Control Plan for Chemically Injured Patients, p. 20

http://www.chemicalinjury.net/environmentalcontrols.htm

»There is legal precedent that a patient with work-related injury and chemical hypersensitivity from toxic exposure could be reimbursed through worker’s compensation for treatments.  This includes nutritional evaluation and treatment of nutritional deficiencies, sauna and other measures to assist the body’s detoxification process, and environmental control measures to reduce exposure (Hanlon Vs Arizona Chemical Corp. etal, State of Florida, claim #261-62-3325, decision 12-2-86). Another legal precedent confirms that a patient with chemical injury should be entitled to ongoing medical coverage, in this case for detoxification procedures, nutritional evaluation and care, and environmental controls, even if needed in an out-of-state facility, (Perry vs. NV Inc. etal, State of Hawaii case #49200727, decision date 2-14-92).«

 

                                                                                          

MCS skupine in forumi na spletu

 

Avstralija

Allergy, Sensitivity & Environmental Health Association Qld Inc (ASEHA Qld Inc)

http://www.asehaqld.org.au/

 

Avstrija

MIA - MCS Initiative Austria: http://www.mcs-info.at/

 

Belgija

MCS Belgium: https://www.facebook.com/groups/140020552680913/

 

Francija

MELODIE: http://www.forum-melodie.fr/phpBB3/

 

Italija

EMPA Forum: http://empa.forumcommunity.net/?f=5372560

MCS Riconoscere la malattia anche in Italia:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/MCS.Riconoscimento/

 

Nemčija

DGMCS e.V. - Deutsche Gesellschaft Multiple-Chemical-Sensitivity:  http://www.dgmcs.de/

CSN – Forum (Chemical Sensitivity Network): http://forum.csn-deutschland.de/

SiVe - ULGS: (Schadstoff induziert Vergiftungserkrankte - UMWELT LEBEN GESUNDHEITBSCHUTZ: https://www.facebook.com/groups/sive.ulgs/

 

Slovenija

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, MCS, Slovenia: https://www.facebook.com/groups/1871970573125638/

 

Španija
Servicio de información sobre sensibilidad química múltiple y salud ambiental: http://www.sensibilidadquimicamultiple.org/

 

Velika Britanija

MCS-Aware: http://www.mcs-aware.org/

 

ZDA

MCS America: http://www.mcs-america.org/

MCS Referral & Resources, Professional outreach, patient support, and public advocacy devoted to the diagnosis, treatment, accommodation, and prevention of MULTIPLE CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY and MULTI-SENSORY SENSITIVITY http://www.mcsrr.org/

 

Mednarodni

MCS International: http://www.mcs-international.org/

Persons with MCS Map Project: https://www.facebook.com/groups/MCSMap/

 

 

Zanimivosti

 

WHO končno priznava, da kemikalije, ki jih najdemo v vsakem domu, lahko povzročijo raka na prsih, astmo, neplodnost, razvojne nepravilnosti:

Poisoned by every day life: Landmark study warns gender bending chemicals in your home, food and car ARE linked to a huge range of diseases

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2281394/Poisoned-day-life-Landmark-study-warns-gender-bending-chemicals-home-food-car-ARE-linked-huge-range-diseases.html


Poziv znanstvenikov OZN in WHO za zaščito pred elektromagnetnimi polji:

Scientists call for Protection from Non-ionizing Electromagnetic Field Exposure

http://www.emfscientist.org/index.php/emf-scientist-appeal

 

Knjiga Dark Side of Fragrances / Glen O. Brechbill, 1st ed., 2007

http://www.perfumerbook.com/Dark%20Side%20of%20Fragrance's.pdf

 

Toksične snovi v dišavah: Scent of Danger: Are There Toxic Ingredients in Perfumes and Colognes?

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/toxic-perfumes-and-colognes/

 

Dišave povzročajo odvisnost: The Addictive Power of Toxic Perfumes and Colognes

http://healthimpactnews.com/2014/the-addictive-power-of-toxic-perfumes-and-colognes/

 

Opažajo spremembe v zmogljivostih otrok: 
http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/news/2013/opinion-chemical-brain-drain
 
Britanski ginekologi so izdali odlične smernice za bodoče mamice:

https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/sip37/

 

Kdaj je dišave preveč – vsekakor takrat, ko se jo čuti dlje kot za dolžino roke: Are You Wearing Too Much Perfume? Eau no, you don’t! Pro advice on how to deal with some stinky scent situations, By Abbie Kozolchyk

http://www.realsimple.com/beauty-fashion/makeup/fragrance/too-much-perfume

 

Tudi z naravnimi spojinami si lahko pripravimo dišave: knjiga Slobodanke Poštić V čarobnem svetu vonjev : aromaterapevtski koledar : eterična olja iz meseca v mesec:

http://cobiss4.izum.si/scripts/cobiss?command=DISPLAY&base=99999&rid=267175424&fmt=11

 

O prenašanju občutljivosti na kemikalije skozi rodove: The Toxins That Affected Your Great-Grandparents Could Be In Your Genes. Biologist Michael Skinner has enraged the chemical community and shocked his peers with his breakthrough research by By Jeneen Interlandi for Smithsonian magazine, December 2013

http://renchemista.wordpress.com/2013/12/02/the-toxins-that-affected-your-great-grandparents-could-be-in-your-genes-biologist-michael-skinner-has-enraged-the-chemical-community-and-shocked-his-peers-with-his-breakthrough-research-by-by-jeneen-i/

 

Knjiga Psychisch gestört oder arbeitsbedingt krank? Mehrfache Chemikalien-unverträglichkeit (MCS), Lösemittel-Syndrom und Bk 1317 / Werner Maschewsky unter Mitarbeit von Nicola Opp, Hans Böckler Stiftung, 2000

http://www.boeckler.de/pdf/p_edition_hbs_030.pdf

 

L'MCS descritto dal Prof.Genovesi Giuseppe, specialista in Endocrinologia, Immunologia e Psichiatria presso il Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia dell’Azienda Policlinico Umberto I Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza

http://www.controlsecurityambiente.com/consigli-e-applicazioni/sensibilita-chimica-multipla/mcs-descritto-dal-prof-genovesi-giuseppe/

 

Scented laundry products emit hazardous chemicals through dryer vents

»Analysis of the captured gases found more than 25 volatile organic compounds, including seven hazardous air pollutants, coming out of the vents. Of those, two chemicals -- acetaldehyde and benzene -- are classified by the Environmental Protection Agency as carcinogens, for which the agency has established no safe exposure level.

Steinemann recommends using laundry products without any fragrance or scent.«

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110824091537.htm#.WQnk8iOg5NM

Household chemicals may impair thyroid in young girls

»Exposure to phthalates is linked to depressed function in the 'master controller' of brain development, potentially explaining known phthalate-related cognitive problems«
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-05/cums-hcm053017.php#.WS3E_SiotLc.facebook

 

Effectiveness of Commercial and Homemade Washing Agents in Removing Pesticide Residues on and in Apples

»They monitored the pesticide levels on the surface and inside of the fruit after washing with each method. The baking soda and water solution beat out both bleach and tap water after two minutes of cleaning, and again after eight minutes. After 12 to 15 minutes of washing, the formula had removed virtually all external pesticides, as well as some that had begun to seep below the fruit’s surface. The very lengthy washing wiped out 80% of the thiabendazole and 96% of the phosmet.«

http://time.com/4993253/washing-apples-pesticides/

Effectiveness of Commercial and Homemade Washing Agents in Removing Pesticide Residues on and in Apples

Tianxi Yang, Jeffery Doherty, Bin Zhao, Amanda J. Kinchla, John M. Clark, and Lili He

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2017 65 (44), 9744-9752

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03118

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03118


SPECT scan izvid pacientke:

http://ourlittleplace.com/health-risks-of-perfume/spect-scan-of-mcs-patient-s-brain


Uredbe  v zvezi z dimom po svetu:

http://woodsmoke.3sc.net/policies-elsewhere


Utah - “No-burn" season is from November to the end of February

http://kutv.com/news/local/neighbor-burning-wood-deq-wants-you-to-turn-them-in


Napotki za izbiro zobozdravnikov in zobozdravstvenih materialov:

http://www.chemicalfree.co.uk/downloads/Dentists.pdf

 

Strokovni članki in raziskave

 

Belpomme D, Campagnac C, Irigaray P.: Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder.

Rev Environ Health. 2015;30(4):251-71. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0027.

https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/reveh.2015.30.issue-4/reveh-2015-0027/reveh-2015-0027.xml
Francija, full text

»Our data strongly suggest that EHS and MCS can be objectively characterized and  routinely diagnosed by commercially available simple tests. Both disorders appear to involve inflammation-related hyper-histaminemia, oxidative stress, autoimmune response, capsulothalamic hypoperfusion and BBB opening, and a deficit in melatonin metabolic availability; suggesting a risk of chronic neurodegenerative disease. Finally the common co-occurrence of EHS and MCS strongly suggests a common pathological mechanism.«

 

Caccamo, Daniela et al., “Xenobiotic Sensor- and Metabolism-Related Gene Variants in Environmental Sensitivity-Related Illnesses: A Survey on the Italian Population,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2013, Article ID 831969, 9 pages, 2013.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/831969

full text, 156 diagnosed MCS, 94 suspected MCS

»We found significantly higher frequency of polymorphisms CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2D6*4 and CYP2D6*41 in patients compared with controls. This confirms that these genetic variants represent a genetic risk factor for SRI. Moreover, the compound heterozygosity for CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants was useful to discriminate between either MCS or FM/CFS versus SMCS, while the PM *41/*41 genotype discriminated between MCS and either SMCS or FM/CFS. The compound heterozygosity for CYP2C9 *1/*3 and CYP2D6 *1/*4 differentiated MCS and SMCS cases from FM/CFS ones. Interestingly, despite the distribution of the AHR Arg554Lys variant did not result significantly different between SRI cases and controls, it resulted useful for the discrimination between MCS and SMCS cases when considered within haplotypes in combination with CYP2C19 *1/*2 and CYP2D6 *1/*4. Results allowed us to propose the genotyping for these specific CYP variants, together with the AHR Arg554Lys variant, as reliable, cost-effective genetic parameters to be included in the still undefined biomarkers' panel for laboratory diagnosis of the main types of environmental-borne SRI.« 

 

Chemical Sensitivity Foundation

http://www.chemicalsensitivityfoundation.org/chemical-sensitivity-research_bibliography.html


Cui, Xiaoyi et al.: Evaluation of Genetic Polymorphisms in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. PLoS ONE 8(8): e73708.

Published: August 13, 2013

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073708

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0073708

full text, Japonska, 324 Japanese male workers

»We observed that high chemical sensitive individuals diagnosed by using Japanese criteria as MCS patients were more significantly associated with SOD2 polymorphisms.«

 

De Luca, Chiara et al.: Biological definition of multiple chemical sensitivity from redox state and cytokine profiling and not from polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Volume 248, Issue 3, 1 November 2010, Pages 285–292

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041008X10001444

ScienceDirect Italija
»Altered redox and cytokine patterns suggest inhibition of expression/activity of metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in MCS. Metabolic parameters indicating accelerated lipid oxidation, increased nitric oxide production and glutathione depletion in combination with increased plasma inflammatory cytokines should be considered in biological definition and diagnosis of MCS.«

 

De Luca, Chiara et al., “Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2014, Article ID 924184, 14 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/924184

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/924184/

 

ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITIES RESEARCH AT JAMES MADISON UNIVERSITY

http://www.mcsresearch.net/

 

Facco, E., Pasquali, S., Zanette, G., Casiglia, E.: Hypnosis as sole anaesthesia for skin tumour removal in a patient with multiple chemical sensitivity, Anaesthesia, Volume 68, Issue 9, pages 961–965, September 2013

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/anae.12251/full

 

Genuis SJ.: Chemical sensitivity: pathophysiology or pathopsychology?

Clin Ther. 2013 May;35(5):572-7. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.04.003. Epub 2013 May 1.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23642291

full text, Kanada, review

»Often thought to be a manifestation of disordered psychology, many researchers and clinicians have rejected CS as a pathophysiologic condition. Some have welcomed the forthcoming American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Revision, diagnosis of somatic symptoms disorder8 as a fitting diagnostic category for attribution  of  this  clinical  presentation.  A  mounting body of evidence, however, suggests that the millions of individuals suffering from this apparently new CS disorder have common features and may have a common etiology.«

 

Guxens, Mònica et al.: Air Pollution Exposure During Fetal Life, Brain Morphology, and Cognitive Function in School-Age Children

Biological Psychiatry , Volume 84 , Issue 4 , 295 - 303

http://www.biologicalpsychiatryjournal.com/article/S0006-3223(18)30064-7/fulltext

 

Health Council of the Netherlands: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. The Hague: Health

Council of the Netherlands, 1999; publication no. 1999/01.

https://www.gezondheidsraad.nl/sites/default/files/9901e.pdf

 

Heuser, Gunnar: The Role of the Brain and Mast Cells in MCS

http://www.tldp.com/issue/210/roleoftheb.htm

 

Hillert L, et al: Odor Processing in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

Human Brain Mapping, 28(3):172‐183, March 2007

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16767766

Švedska

»Subjects with MCS process odors differently from controls, however, without signs of neuronal sensitization. One possible explanation for the observed pattern of activation in MCS is a top-down regulation of odor-response via cingulate cortex.«

 

Joffres MR, Williams T, Sabo B, Fox RA (2001) Environmental Sensitivities: Prevalence of Major Symptoms in a Referral Center: The Nova Scotia Environmental Sensitivities Research CenterStudy. Environmental Health Perspectives 109 (2): 161 - 165.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240637/pdf/ehp0109-000161.pdf

 

Joffres MR, Sampalli T and Fox RA (2005) Physiologic and symptomatic responses to low - level substances in individuals with and without chemical sensitivities: a

randomized controlled blinded pilot booth study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, 1178 – 1183.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16140624

 
Katoh T et al.: [Application of Metabolomics to Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Research]. [Article in Japanese]

Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2016;71(1):94-9. doi: 10.1265/jjh.71.94.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832623

»We identified 183 substances whose levels were beyond the normal detection limit. The most prominent differences included significant increases in the levels of both hexanoic acid and pelargonic acid, and also a significant decrease in the level of acetylcarnitine in patients with MCS. In conclusion, using metabolomics analysis, we uncovered a hitherto unrecognized alteration in the levels of metabolites in MCS. These changes may have important biological implications and may have a

significant potential for use as biomarkers.«


Korkina L . The Chemical Defensive System in the Pathobiology of Idiopathic Environment-Associated Diseases. Curr Drug Metab. 2010 Jan 7.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/41759343/download

»reviewed epidemiological, genetic, and biochemical data on the involvement and possible role of cytochrome P450 super family enzymes, glutathione-S-transferase isozymes, catechol-O-methyl-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyl transferases, and proteins detoxifying inorganic and organic peroxides (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and peroxiredoxin)«

Martini, A., Iavicoli, S. and Corso, L.: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity and the Workplace: Current Position and Need for an Occupational Health Surveillance Protocol, Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013; 2013: 351457. Published online 2013 Jun 16. doi:  10.1155/2013/35145

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3697784/?report=classic

full text, Italija, review

»More occupational physicians need to be “sensitive” to MCS, so that these workers are recognized promptly, the work is adapted as necessary, and preventive measures are promoted in the workplace.a diagnostic strategy,which may be useful to occupational physicians.«

 

McKeown-Eyssen, G. e tal.: Case-control study of genotypes in multiple chemical sensitivity: CYP2D6, NAT1, NAT2, PON1, PON2 and MTHFR

 Int. J. Epidemiol. (2004) 33 (5): 971-978

http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/5/971.full
203 patients, full text, Kanada

»Comparing cases and controls, significant differences were found in genotype distributions for CYP2D6 (P = 0.02) and NAT2 (P = 0.03). Compared with the referent homozygous inactive (CYP2D6) or slow (NAT2) metabolizers, the odds for being CYP2D6 homozygous active (OR = 3.36, P = 0.01) and NAT2 rapid (OR = 4.14, P = 0.01) were significantly higher in cases than controls. The odds for being heterozygous for PON1-55 (OR = 2.05, P = 0.04) and PON1-192 (OR =1.57, P = 0.04) were also significantly higher in cases.«

 

Meggs William J.: The Role of Neurogenic Inflammation in Chemical Sensitivity

Ecopsychology. June 2017, 9(2): 83-89. https://doi.org/10.1089/eco.2016.0045

http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/eco.2016.0045

Karolina

»The scientific evidence that neurogenic inflammation plays a role in chemical sensitivity is presented in this review article.«

 

MULTIPLE CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, May 16-17, 2001, Aylmer, Quebec

https://lindasepp.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/mcs_symposium_e.pdf

 

Nassan, Feiby L. et al.: Personal Care Product Use in Men and Urinary Concentrations of Select Phthalate Metabolites and Parabens: Results from the Environment And Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP1374

https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp1374/

 

National Research Council (US). Multiple Chemical Sensitivities: A Workshop. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1992. Allergy and Multiple Chemical Sensitivities Distinguished. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234794/

 

Orriols R, Costa R, Cuberas G, Jacas C, Castell J, Sunyer J.: Brain dysfunction in multiple chemical sensitivity.

J Neurol Sci. 2009 Dec 15;287(1-2):72-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2009.09.003. Epub 2009 Oct 3.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19801154

Elsevier, Španija, 8 patients, controls – SPECT

»In comparison to controls, cases presented basal brain SPECT hypoperfusion in small cortical areas of the right parietal and both temporal and fronto-orbital lobes. After chemical challenge, cases showed hypoperfusion in the olfactory, right and left hippocampus, right parahippocampus, right amygdala, right thalamus, right and left Rolandic and right temporal cortex regions(p<or=0.01). By contrast, controls showed hyperperfusion in the cingulus, right parahippocampus, left thalamus and some cortex regions (p<or=0.01). The clustered deactivation pattern in cases was stronger than in controls (p=0.012) and the clustered activation pattern in controls was higher than in cases (p=0.012). In comparison to controls, cases presented poorer quality of life and neurocognitive function at baseline, and neurocognitive worsening after chemical exposure. Chemical exposure caused neurocognitive impairment, and SPECT brain dysfunction particularly in odor-processing areas, thereby suggesting a neurogenic origin of MCS.«

 

Pall, Martin L: Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects

J Cell Mol Med. 2013 Aug; 17(8): 958–965. Published online 2013 Jun 26. doi:  10.1111/jcmm.12088

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3780531/

 

Patel S.: Fragrance compounds: The wolves in sheep's clothings.

Med Hypotheses. 2017 May;102:106-111. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2017.03.025. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28478814

 

Resources and Support for Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, Environmental Illness, and Chemical Injuries in Canada

http://www.mcscanadian.org/research.html

 

Reed Gibson P (2005) Understanding and Accommodating People with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Independent Living. Independent Living Research Utilization, Institute for Rehabilitation and Research.

http://ilru.net/node/724

 

Reed Gibson P (2009) Chemical and Electromagnetic Exposures as Disability Barriers: Environmental Sensitivity. Disability & Society 24(2):187-199.

http://www.mcsresearch.net/journalpapers/chemicalbarriers.pdf

 

Reed Gibson P, Cheavens J and Warren ML (1996) Chemical Sensitivity/Chemical Injury and Life Disruption. Women & Therapy 19(2).

http://www.mcsresearch.net/journalpapers/lifedisruption.pdf

 

Reed Gibson P, Cheavens J and Warren ML (1998) Social support in persons with self-reported sensitivity to chemicals. Research in Nursing & Health. 21(2):103–115.

http://www.mcsresearch.net/journalpapers/socialsupport.pdf

 

Reed Gibson P Elms AN and Ruding LA (2003) Perceived Treatment Efficacy for Conventional and Alternative Therapies Reported by Persons with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (12): 1498-1504.

http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action;jsessionid=E6418505456EC8520931340BC7DA6B54?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.5936

 

Reed Gibson P, Placek E, Lane J, Ostroff Brohimer S and Earehart Lovelace AC (2005) Disability induced identity changes in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity.

Qualitative Health Research 15(4):502-524.

http://www.mcsresearch.net/journalpapers/disabilityinducedidentity.pdf

 

Reed Gibson P, Sledd LG, MdEnroe WH and Vos AB (2011) Isolation and lack of access in multiple chemical sensitivity: A qualitative study. Nursing and Health Sciences, May 20. doi:10.1111/j.1442 - 2018.2011.00606.x. [Epub ahead of print]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21595819

 

Ross GH (1992) History and clinical presentation of the chemically sensitive patient. Toxicology and Industrial Health 8: 21-28.

http://www.aehf.com/articles/history_of_cs.html

 

Rossi, Sabrina, MSc; Pitidis, Alessio, MSc: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: Review of the State of the Art in Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Future Perspectives
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: February 2018 - Volume 60 - Issue 2 - p 138–146
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001215

https://journals.lww.com/joem/Fulltext/2018/0200/Multiple_Chemical_Sensitivity__Review_of_the_State.5.aspx

 

Schnakenberg E, Fabig KR, Stanulla M, Strobl N, Lustig M, Fabig N, Schloot W (2007) A cross-sectional study of self - reported chemical - related sensitivity is associated with gene variants of drug - metabolizing enzymes. Environ Health. 6:616.

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a79f/70ede00fc026516aa890a69d66962eea1f13.pdf?_ga=2.15023027.443616434.1536048096-1959651823.1536048096

 521 patients, Nemčija

»The results show significant differences between individuals with and without selfreported chemical-related sensitivity with regard to the distribution of NAT2, GSTM1, and GSTT1

gene variants. Cases with self-reported chemical-related sensitivity were significantly more frequently NAT2 slow acetylators (controlled OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.27–2.59, P = 0.001). GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were significantly more often homozygously deleted in those individuals reporting sensitivity to chemicals compared to controls (GSTM1: controlled OR 2.08, 95% CI = 1.46–2.96, P= 0.0001; GSTT1: controlled OR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.65–4.75, P = 0.0001). Effects for GSTP1 gene variants were observed in conjunction with GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2 gene

Sears M.(2007) The Medical Perspective on Environmental Sensitivities. Canadian Human Rights Commission.

http://www.chrc-ccdp.ca/research_program_recherche/esensitivities_hypersensibilitee/toc_tdm-eng.aspx

 

Shusterman D, Balmes J and Cone J (1988) Behavioural sensitisation to irritants/odourants after acute over-exposure. J Occup Med 30: 565-567.

 
Simon TR. Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain in patients with chemical sensitivities. Toxicol Ind Health. 1994 Jul-Oct;10(4-5):573-7

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7778115

ZDA

»Chemical sensitivities display a recurrent pattern on scintigraphic examinations of the brain. The pattern can include mismatching between early and late imaging, multiple hot and cold foci distributed throughout the cortex without regard to lobar distribution (salt and pepper pattern), temporal asymmetries, and sometimes increased activity in the basal ganglia.«

 

Sorg BA (1999) Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: potential role for neural sensitisation. Crit Rev Neurobiol 13:283-316.

http://users.sfo.com/~hawk/B-Sorg-MCS-PotentialRoleForNeuralSensitization1999-Research-34-pages.htm

 

Steinemann A: National Prevalence and Effects of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities.

J Occup Environ Med. 2018 Mar;60(3):e152-e156. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001272.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29329146

full text

Americans (1137) surveyed in June 2016; 12.8% report medically diagnosed MCS and 25.9% report chemical sensitivity

»Prevalence of diagnosed MCS has increased over 300%, and self-reported chemical sensitivity over 200%, in the past decade. Reducing exposure to fragranced products could help reduce adverse health and societal effects.«

 

Steinemann, Anne: Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products

Preventive Medicine Reports, Volume 5, March 2017, Pages 45–47

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211335516301449

 

Steinemann AC., Caress SM: A national population study of the prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivity.

Arch Environ Health. 2004 Jun;59(6):300-5.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16238164

 

Tran M.T., et al: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: On the Scent of Central Sensitization

International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 216(2): 202‐210, 2013

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22487274

Elsevier

»Increased capsaicin-induced secondary punctate hyperalgesia was demonstrated in MCS patients without comorbid, overlapping disorders, suggesting facilitated central sensitization in MCS.«

 

Winder C (2002) Mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity. Toxicol Lett 128(1-3):85-97.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11869820

 

Ziem G. (2001) Medical Evaluation and Treatment of Patients with Chemical Injury and Sensitivity. Presentation at the 2001 MCS Conference, Santa Fe, New Mexico –August 13–15, 2001.

 

Ziem G and McTamney J. (1997) Profile of Patients with Chemical Injury and Sensitivity. Environmental Health Perspectives 105 (Sup2): 417-436.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1469804/pdf/envhper00327-0021.pdf

 

 

Zanimive strani posameznikov

 

http://www.angelfire.com/planet/mcshelpsite/#stuff%20MCS

 

https://lindasepp.wordpress.com/

 

 

Primeri izdelkov, ki jih lahko uporabljajo tudi bolj občutljivi

 

Zelo težko je najti kaj primernega, še posebej ker se tudi neodišavljeni proizvodi skladiščijo in prodajajo v istih prostorih kot odišavljeni. Tako pride celo do kontaminacije izdelkov, ki bi sicer lahko bili ustrezni. Še večji problem so zaradi tega prehranski artikli, t.i. trgovine z zdravo prehrano poleg bio hrane prodajajo še detergente, dišeče svečke … Zelo občutljivi izdelkov široke potrošnje ne morejo več uporabljati. Pomagajo si z domačo izdelavo, zelo veliko uporabljajo sodo bikarbono, kis, eno milo kot univerzalno sredstvo za umivanje, pranje, čiščenje.

 

Domači deodorant

Zmešamo:

10 g koruznega škroba

50 g sode bikarbone

17 g staljenega kokosovega olja

5 kapljic eteričnega olja čajevca

Obstaja več variant recepta, običajno uporabijo po 30 mL škroba in sode, uporabijo tudi kakšno drugo eterično olje.  V primerih močnejšega potenja se delež sode bikarbone lahko poveča. Na rdečih oblačilih lahko pušča temne madeže, ki pa se lepo sperejo.

Nekateri namesto deodoranta uporabijo tudi samo sodo bikarbono, najlažje se jo nanese na še malce vlažno kožo po umivanju.

Malo dražja varianta, ki pa ne pušča madežev:

3 čajne žličke karitejevega masla

2 čajni žlički sode bikarbone

1 čajna žlička cinkovega oksida

 

Prašek za perilo

Denk mit Vollwaschmittel Ultra Sensitive

https://www.dm.de/de_homepage/denkmit_home/produkte/produkte_waschen/produkte_waschen_vollwaschmittel/10362/denkmit-vollwaschmittel-ultra-sensitive.html

Po potrebi lahko dodamo žlico sode, kombinacija po učinkovitosti ne zaostaja za bolj agresivnimi sredstvi. Pri večji občutljivosti je možna intoleranca.

Sonett Neutral tekoči detergent

Sonett Neutral za pranje volne

http://www.sonett.eu/index.php?id=34&lang=en

Sode se pri občutljivem perilu ne sme dodajati.

Pri prehodu na neodišavljene detergente se je zelo težko znebiti dišav od prejšnjih pranj. Običajno je treba vsaj 5 pranj. Pomaga, če se perilo suši na vetru. Bolje gre pri višji temperaturi – na poletni vročini ali na radiatorju.

Dišave se vežejo na maščobe, zato poročajo o uspehu pri namakanju perila v mleku. Žal se na ta način lahko marsikatera tkanina uniči.

Težave so tudi z novimi oblačili, nekateri jih morajo pred nošenjem oprati vsaj desetkrat. Namakanje v raztopini sode bikarbone pospeši izločanje barvil. Temnejša oblačila so običajno bolj toksična. Kis fiksira barvila.

Tkanine, ki jih ni treba likati, so obdelane s formaldehidom.

 

Mehčalec za perilo

1 dL nearomatiziranega kisa ga lahko nadomesti.

 

Detergent za ročno pomivanje posode

Sonett Neutral

http://www.sonett.eu/index.php?id=34&lang=en

Ecover zero

http://si.ecover.com/si/zero/izdelek/zero-detergent-za-ro%C4%8Dno-pomivanje-posode/

Lahko se uporabljata kot univerzalno čistilno sredstvo.

 

Milo

A-Derma dermatološki sindet

http://www.aderma.com/en/ma-rodina/hygiena-jejich-krehke-pokozky/dermatological-bar

Urtekram

http://www.purenature.de/no-perfume-seife

 

Šampon

Desert Essence

http://www.iherb.com/Desert-Essence-Organics-Shampoo-Fragrance-Free-8-fl-oz-237-ml/11024#p=1&oos=1&disc=0&lc=en-US&w=desert%20essence%20fragrance%20free&rc=244&sr=null&ic=1

Urtekram

http://www.urtekram.com/products/body-care/hair/no-perfume-shampoo-normal-hair-organic-250-ml

 

Čiščenje zob

Weledin rastlinski gel

http://www.weleda.de/produkt/p/pflanzen-zahngel

 

Nega kože

Odlično se obnese karitejevo maslo, lahko se uporabi tudi kokosovo olje.

http://www.iherb.com/Out-of-Africa-100-Pure-and-Unrefined-Shea-Butter-Raw-and-Wild-Crafted-8-oz-227-g/34908#p=1&oos=1&disc=0&lc=en-US&w=out%20of%20africa&rc=149&sr=null&ic=2

 

Nega ustnic

Karitejevo maslo in kokosovo olje sta primerna tudi za nego ustnic.

Hyalogic Episilk Lip Balm

http://www.iherb.com/Hyalogic-LLC-Episilk-Lip-Balm-with-Hyaluronic-Acid-1-2-fl-oz-14-g/38457#p=1&oos=1&disc=0&lc=en-US&w=fragrance%20free%20lip%20balm&rc=324&sr=null&ic=15

 

 

Stran je še v izdelavi. Datum zadnjega ažuriranja: 20.09.18

 

E-mail: Alenka